Articles by JREF

Religion Shinto
Shintō - the Way of Gods Meaning “the way of the gods”, Shinto (神道 shintō) is the native religion of Japan. It is a form of animism which stresses...
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32K
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Biographies Emperor Taisho
Yoshihito (嘉仁), the Taishō Emperor (大正天皇, 31 August 1879-25 December 1926, r. 1912-1926), was the 123rd emperor of Japan in the traditional count...
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10K
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Biographies Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji (明治天皇 Meiji-tennō, born Mutsuhito, 3 November 1852 – 30 July 1912) or Meiji the Great was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to...
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Biographies Emperor Hirohito
Emperor Hirohito (裕仁) was born in Tōkyō on 29 April 1901 and died there on 7 January 1989. He was the 124th tennō (天皇 ) and ruled from 1926 to...
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15K
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The Japanese language uses a broad array of honorific suffixes for addressing or referring to people, for example -san, as in Davey-san. These...
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Common Japanese Phrases This is an ever-growing collection of common and useful Japanese phrases. They aim at beginners of Japanese studies...
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40K
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Below find a concise list of useful phrases and expressions you can use when travelling in Japan. Phrases--Yesはい。Hai.Noいいえ。IieThank you...
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15K
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Euphonic changes (音便 onbin) Modern pronunciation is a result of a long history of phonemic drift that can be traced back to written records of...
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Auxiliary verbs All auxiliary verbs attach to a verbal or adjectival stem form and conjugate as verbs, but they differ from standard verbs in...
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Ancillary words Particles Particles in Japanese are postpositional—they immediately follow the modified component. A full listing of particles...
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Other independent words Adverbs Adverbs in Japanese are not as tightly integrated into the morphology as in many other languages. Indeed, adverbs...
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The copula だ (da) The copula da behaves very much like a verb or an adjective regarding conjugation. Stem forms of the copula-Attributive form...
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Adjectives Japanese has two main classes of adjectives. Pure adjectives (形容詞 keiyōshi, aka. i-type adjective): these are very similar to verbs...
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Conjugable words Stem forms Prior to discussing the conjugable words, a brief note about stem forms. Conjugative suffixes and auxiliary verbs are...
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4K
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Do you have a question relating to Japanese grammar or vocabulary? Please ask at the JREF Nihongo Forum! The Japanese language has a highly...
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72K
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Below find a list of the most common Japanese greetings (挨拶 aisatsu). Greeting and Parting EnglishJapaneseRomajiGood...
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15K
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Chonin (“townspeople”, 町 means city ward) were a social class that emerged at the beginning of the 16th century usually settling around castles...
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7K
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This is an overview of Japanese Encoding Standards. Currently, there are three primary Japanese encoding standards in use to process Japanese...
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4K
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10
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